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The term "Orthodontics" implies correction of teeth irregularities. Many different factors influence on teeth misalignment and disproportionate jaw relationships. Here are some of them - teething disorders, bad habits such as thumb or finger-sucking, lower-lip sucking, long-term pacifier using, rachitis, traumas, nasal breathing problems and so on.
Most orthodontic problems are genetic. For example the representatives of the House of Habsburg had hereditary prognathism (progenia). Their "distinguished" lower jaw is vividly traceable among family members and for over six centuries was easily recognized throughout Europe.

Among other dentistry disciplines, Orthodontics has the strongest impact on teeth and face aesthetics. The basic goals of Orthodontics today doesnot only involve straightening teeth, but also giving the patient the best facial aesthetics possible, and teeth which will last a lifetime.

Compared with other dentistry disciplines, Orthodontics has advantages in providing beautiful and harmonic smile. First of all it is the fact that your teeth do not change their form, and are not substituted for other materials, they just move to their right place in the teeth line.

Whereas orthopedists and implantologists have to place a foreign substance in the oral cavity to serve for years, Orthodontists can solve the problem by moving the patient's own teeth. Orthodontists deal only with natural stuff teeth, gums and bone tissue of jaws. Orthodontics is not only concerned with correction of teeth in the jaw, but also with the jaws positioned improperly, i.e. disproportionate jaw relationships.
We pay special attention to the early detection and treatment of teeth and jaw problems, and that is the reason we recommend that all children receive an orthodontic screening at the age of 4-5. Orthodontic problems may cause many vital dysfunctions - chewing, breathing, swallowing, speech and communication. Sometimes it may even cause problems with spiritual development of a person. Teeth crowding or overbite can provoke caries and periodontal diseases.


1. What problems need orthodontic treatment?

- Disproportionate jaw relationships (frontal or posterior jaw positioning).
Patients or their parents can be guided by the front teeth distance of upper and lower jaws.

- Crowding

When there are too many teeth for the dental ridge to accommodate.

- Overbite

The upper front teeth lie too far forward and stick out for more than 3 mm over the lower teeth. Sometimes cutting edges of lower cutting teeth contact the palate hurting the mucous.

- Spacing

These are gaps or some spacing between the teeth as a result of missing teeth or teeth that do not fill up the mouth. Sometimes spacing may be caused by finger-sucking or other bad habits.

- Open bite

The back teeth bite together whereas there is a space between the biting surface of the front teeth. A 'gap' is apparent in the frontalsection. Sometimes hereditary predisposition is observed for this problem. But mainly it is caused by finger-sucking, pacifier using or pressing the tongue when swallowing. The last option is the most problematic for orthodontists. Overbite may be observed on lateral area as well.

2. Are brackets for aesthetics only?

It is generally accepted that improperly aligned teeth and jaw disfunctions can lead to a host of sometimes painful dental disorders. A bad bite and jaw ailments may cause health problems. Efficiently functioning healthy teeth look pleasant but it may be called a side effect. Orthodontists are dedicated to helping your teeth and jaws work in union so that you can speak, bite and chew comfortably and effectively.Shining and healthy smile is the result of orthodontists work and rarely a gift of nature.

3. When to begin the treatment?

In most cases Orthodontic treatment begins at the age from nine to eleven, when permanent teeth erupt. This is the period when jaw growing is not complete and the Orthodontist can use it for achieving success. Some orthodontic problems may be easier to correct if they are found early, using only simple actions with vestibular disks ( ), function regulators and miogymnastics.

4. How long does the treatment last?

Orthodontic treatment typically lasts from 2 to 3 years, depending on the severity of the orthodontic problem. However, it is possible to make correction of some problems even in a shorter period of time. It should be noted that speeding up in orthodontic treatment can result in treatment complications (pains, loose tth, resorption of roots), and most importantly after-treatment relapse.

5. Removable or fixed appliances?

What orthodontic appliances (removable or fixed) should be used for particular patient's treatment require individual approach and depend on the severity of the orthodontic problem and patient's age. Removable appliances may be used to move selected teeth and to influence growth of jaws. However, serious orthodontic problems require fixed appliances, as substantial teeth movement or rotation around its axis is possible only with brackets. The therapeutical effect of these devices strongly depends on the patient's good cooperation. For fixed appliances this fact is not that crucial, but the patient should follow all the hygienic instructions carefully.

6. Are extraoral appliances necessary?

Extraoral appliances, for example, a face bow or Delyara mask are the most unpleasant part of orthodontic treatment, especially for children. Although they are worn only at night, they are still repulsive. Parents and patients should know that if the orthodontist has decided to use extraoral appliances for treatment, it implies the nessessity of using them, as brackets or other appliances are unable to solve problems which are possible to solve with extraoral appliances.

7. Why should after-treatment devices be used?

After active orthodontic treatment comes the period of retention. It is very important to hold the teeth in the desired position. The duration of this period is strictly individual and depends on the type and scope of previous tooth movement. In most cases the patient shoud use removable retainers. Fixed retainers - stainless steel wire fixed on lingual surface of some teeth- remains over a period of time depending on the severity of orthodontic problem.

8. Does orthodontic treatment cause pain?

Some patients can expect a little aching and tenderness after the brackets are fixed but this usually wears off in two or three days. It may be helpful to take painkillers for a day of two. Sometimes patients have itching in gums, which can be relieved with the help of sedatives. Some discomfort may be experienced while eating thats why once treatment begins there would be some foods to avoid. Some of them are raw vegetables, all sticky foods, avoid chewing gums, have more soups and mashed vegetables.

Some further discomfort may be experienced when the brackets are adjusted subsequently.

As soon as the teeth are straightening, the archwire protrudes from the back locks causing pains. In this case it is sensible to stick a special wax or chewing gum on the sharp edge of the archwire and consult your orthodontist as soon as possible.
Sometimes it seems that the teeth are loose. This is temporary phenomenon connected with bone tissue rearrangement and the teeth will gain their firmness soon.

9. How to maintain oral hygiene in orthodontic treatment?removable orthodontic appliance

- Appliances are washed under running water with toothbrush and toothpaste.
- Washing with vinegar solution prevents creation of dental calculus on appliances.
- In some dense depositions you can have ultrasonic cleaning in the dental clinic.

Fixed appliances

- It is necessary to clean the teeth after every meal.
- Before cleaning the teeth the mouth should be rinsed with water very thoroughly.
- After that it is advisable to brush the teeth surface aroud the brackets.
- Dental spaces between brackets are brushed with a special intedental brush.
- Once a day (before going to bed) it is recommended to floss

10. Are there any age limitations for bite disorder corrections?

There is no age limit in Orthodontics. However, it is more advisable to begin the treatment at an early age, as there is active metabolism which can be used to achieve a desired result in correcting jaw disorders and usually there are no parodentium problems. Yet, orthodontic treatment of adults becomes essential for a lot of problems: crooked front teeth get aligned, no spacing and crowding observed, areas are created to make tooth replacements and so on.


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